3d-labs provide services for Storage Tanks, 3D-LABS executed by a diligent team of professionals, which is highly skilled and makes use of latest technologies to carry out this service in the most effective manner.
Our support services cover all aspects of storage tank mechanical and process and thermal design.
Our Tank Offerings
* Vertical Tanks Design
* Cone-Bottom Tanks Design
* Open-Top Tanks Design
* Horizontal Tanks Calculations
* Steel-Lined Vessels Design
* Non-Standard Tanks & Custom Molded Products
Fire Water Tank design
Portable Water Tank design
Raw Water Storage Tank design
ACF Treated Water Tank
Ro Reject Water Storage Tank
Some completed storage tank works:
Fresh Water Tank for ADCO
Disposal Water Tank for ADCO
Fire Water Tank for ADCO
Diesel Bulk Storage Tank for ADCO
Flow Suction Tank for ADCO
Double Wall Storage Tank for Samsung Engg
Abesment of Zincalume tank for ESP Industries.
Storage tank Design for Koushik PressureVessel Ltd
Nitrogen Storage Tank for BZEC
Slag De-Watering Tank – L & T
Bulwer Island Bitumen Tank Shell design & repair Work-Puma Australia
Zincalume Bolted Storage Tank as per AS 2304 for Lars Enviro Pvt Ltd, Jaipur
Waste Water Storage Tank AS 2304 for Morganite crucible India Ltd, Maharastra
Raw Water Storage Tank as per AWWA for Zydus cadila Research Centre, Ahmedabad
GLS Tank for Lars Enviro Pvt Ltd, Jaipur
as per AS 2304
Drawing of Naphtha Hydro testing Process Skid for Sama Steels, U.A.E
Pedestal Support design for 50Ton & 100 Ton Bitumen Tanks-Puma, Australia
Column Support Detail For Puma Australia
Davit design for Puma Australia
We provide a wide range of engineering services for Storage Tanks to our clients based worlwide. In our range of Storage Tanks, we offer Resin Storage Tanks, Modular Storage Tank,Transformer Oil Storage Tanks, grain Storage Tanks, Industrial Liquid Storage Tanks, Chemical Storage Tanks, Petrochemical Tanks and Water Storage Tanks.
Storage tanks containing organic liquids, non organic liquids, vapors and can be found in many industries. Most storage tanks are designed and built to the American Petroleum Institute API-650 specification.
These tanks can have different sizes, ranging from 2 to 60 m diameter or more. They are generally installed inside containment basins in order to contain spills in case of rupture of the tank.
Industries where storage tanks can be found are: petroleum producing and refining, petrochemical and chemical manufacturing, bulk storage and transfer operations, other industries consuming or producing liquids and vapors. Types of storage tanks
BASICALLY, THERE ARE EIGHT TYPES OF TANKS USED TO STORE LIQUIDS:
External floating roof tanks
Internal floating roof tanks
Domed external floating roof tanks
Variable vapor space tanks
LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) tanks
The first four tank types are cylindrical in shape with the axis oriented perpendicular to the sub grade. These tanks are almost exclusively above ground. Horizontal tanks can be used above and below ground. Pressure tanks often are horizontally oriented and spherically shaped to maintain structural integrity at high pressures. They are located above ground. Variable vapor space tanks can be cylindrical or spherical in shape.
A containment basin of a product should be built around the tanks are made of brick or concrete and the lining should be impervious to liquid stored to prevent spills that can cause fire, property damage or contaminate the environment. The minimum capacity of the basin volume should be equal to the capacity of the largest tank plus 10% of the sum of the capacities of others. To prevent a spill or other emergency the walls of the containment basin must be resistant to the product and must be able to withstand considerable pressure. The drain Valve, which should be incorporated into the outer side of the containment basin, must be closed to prevent possible contamination to the environment.
Of currently used tank designs, the fixed-roof tank is the least expensive to construct and is generally considered the minimum acceptable equipment for storing liquids. A typical fixed-roof tank consists of a cylindrical steel shell with a cone- or dome-shaped roof that is permanently affixed to the tank shell. Storage tanks are usually fully welded and designed for both liquid and vapor tight, while older tanks are often have a riveted or bolted construction and are not vapor tight.
A Breather Valve (pressure-vacuum Valve), which is commonly installed on many fixed-roof tanks, allows the tank to operate at a slight internal pressure or vacuum.
This Valve prevents the release of vapors during only very small changes in temperature, barometric pressure, or liquid level, the emissions from a fixed-roof tank can be appreciable.
Additionally, gauge hatches/sample wells, float gauges, and roof manholes provide accessibility to these tanks and also serve as potential sources of volatile emissions.
External Floating Roof Tank:
A typical external floating roof tank consists of an open-topped cylindrical steel shell equipped with a roof that floats on the surface of the stored liquid, rising and falling with the liquid level. The floating roof is comprised of a deck, fittings, and rim seal system. Floating roof decks are constructed of welded steel plates and are of three general types: pan, pontoon, and double deck.
Although numerous pan-type decks are currently in use, the present trend is toward pontoon and double-deck type floating roofs.
Manufacturers supply various versions of these basic types of floating decks, which are tailored to emphasize particular features, such as full liquid contact, load-carrying capacity, roof stability, or pontoon arrangement. The liquid surface is covered by the floating deck, except in the small annular space between the deck and the shell; the deck may contact the liquid or float directly above the surface on pontoons.
External floating roof tanks are equipped with a rim seal system, which is attached to the roof perimeter and contacts the tank wall. The rim seal system slides against the tank wall as the roof is raised and lowered. The floating deck is also equipped with fittings that penetrate the deck and serve operational functions. The external floating roof design is such that evaporative losses from the stored liquid are limited to losses from the rim seal system and deck fittings (standing storage loss) and any exposed liquid on the tank walls (withdrawal loss).
Internal Floating Roof Tank:
That tanks has both, a permanent fixed roof and a floating roof inside. There are two basic types of internal floating roof tanks: tanks in which the fixed roof is supported by vertical columns within the tank tanks with a self-supporting fixed roof and no internal support columns
The fixed roof is not necessarily free of openings but does span the entire open plan area of the vessel. Fixed roof tanks that have been retrofitted to employ an internal floating roof are typically of the first type, while external floating roof tanks that have been converted to an internal floating roof tank typically have a self-supporting roof.
Tanks initially constructed with both a fixed roof and an internal floating roof may be of either type. An internal floating roof tank has both a permanently affixed roof and a roof that floats inside the tank on the liquid surface (contact deck) or is supported on pontoons several inches above the liquid surface (noncontact deck). The internal floating roof rises and falls with the liquid level.
Domed External Floating Roof Tank:
Domed external floating roof tanks have the heavier type of deck used in external floating roof tanks as well as a fixed roof at the top of the shell like internal floating roof tanks. Domed external floating roof tanks usually result from retrofitting an external floating roof tank with a fixed roof.
As with the internal floating roof tanks, the function of the fixed roof is not to act as a vapor barrier, but to block the wind. The type of fixed roof most commonly used is a self-supporting aluminum dome roof, which is of bolted construction. Like the internal floating roof tanks, these tanks are freely vented by circulation vents at the top of the fixed roof. The deck fittings and rim seals, however, are basically identical to those on external floating roof tanks.
Horizontal tanks are constructed for both above-ground and underground service. Horizontal tanks are usually constructed of steel, steel with a fiberglass overlay, or fiberglass-reinforced polyester. Horizontal tanks are generally small storage tanks.
Horizontal tanks are constructed such that the length of the tank is not greater than six times the diameter to ensure structural integrity. Horizontal tanks are usually equipped with pressure-vacuum vents, gauge hatches and sample wells, and manholes to provide accessibility to these tanks. In addition, underground tanks may be cathodically protected to prevent corrosion of the tank shell. Cathodic protection is accomplished by placing sacrificial anodes in the tank that are connected to an impressed current system or by using galvanic anodes in the tank. However, internal cathodic protection is no longer widely used in the petroleum industry, due to corrosion inhibitors that are now found in most refined petroleum products.
The Pressure Tanks comes under Pressure Vessel Code.
Variable Vapor Space Tank:
Variable vapor space tanks are equipped with expandable vapor reservoirs to accommodate vapor volume fluctuations attributable to temperature and barometric pressure changes. Although variable vapor space tanks are sometimes used independently, they are normally connected to the vapor spaces of one or more fixed roof tanks. The two most common types of variable vapor space tanks are lifter roof tanks and flexible diaphragm tanks. Lifter roof tanks have a telescoping roof that fits loosely around the outside of the main tank wall. The space between the roof and the wall is closed by either a wet seal, which is a trough filled with liquid, or a dry seal, which uses a flexible coated fabric.
Flexible diaphragm tanks use flexible membranes to provide expandable volume. They may be either separate gasholder units or integral units mounted atop fixed roof tanks. Variable vapor space tank losses occur during tank filling when vapor is displaced by liquid. Loss of vapor occurs only when the tank's vapor storage capacity is exceeded.
LNG Storage Tank:
A liquefied natural gas storage tank or LNG storage tank is a specialized type of storage tank used for the storage of Liquefied Natural Gas. LNG storage tanks can be found in ground, above ground or in LNG carriers. The common characteristic of LNG Storage tanks is the ability to store LNG at the very low temperature of -162°C. LNG storage tanks have double containers, where the inner contains LNG and the outer container contains insulation materials. The most common tank type is the full containment tank. Tanks are roughly 55 m (180 ft) high and 75 m in diameter.
In LNG storage tanks if LNG vapors are not released, the pressure and temperature within the tank will continue to rise. LNG is a cryogen, and is kept in its liquid state at very low temperatures. The temperature within the tank will remain constant if the pressure is kept constant by allowing the boil off gas to escape from the tank. This is known as auto-refrigeration.
The world's largest above-ground tank (Delivered in 2000) is the 180 million liters full containment type for Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. The world's largest tank (Delivered in 2001) is the 200 million liters Membrane type for Toho Gas Co., Ltd..
7 Types of Industrial Storage Tanks Explained
Industrial storage tanks are containers used for storage of gas, oil, water, and petrochemical products, employed for industrial uses. Industrial storage tanks come in different sizes and shapes.
They can be underground, horizontal, and vertical, and be made from concrete, stone, fiberglass, steel or plastic.
Industrial storage tanks can be categorized into several types based on the substance they hold and some other factors.
Here you can learn about seven key types of industrial storage tanks.
Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks:
Industrial fuel storage tanks, known as petroleum tanks also, can store various fluids. In general, they are used for storing non-organic and organic liquids. They can also hold vapor as well as different flammable fluids. Fuel storage tanks are manufactured in various designs and sizes. They are designed to store a variety of fuels, vapor, and industrial liquids.
Types of Industrial Fuel Storage Tanks:
There are two main types of fuel storage tanks – Aboveground tanks and Underground tanks.
Aboveground Fuel Tanks:
Aboveground fuel tanks (AST) are quite popular because of their lower long-term maintenance and upfront costs. These tanks are more cost-effective to install compared to underground tanks since you don’t need to spend for backfilling, deep excavation, and pavement of more involved piping.
Aboveground fuel tanks offer greater ease of maintenance compared to the below ground tanks. You can check them easily for leaks and access for repairs. This is the reason aboveground fuel storage tanks are preferred for storing fuels and chemicals.
Underground Storage Tanks:
In Underground storage tank (UST), at least 10% of the tank’s stored volume is buried underground. Such tanks that are used for storing hazardous materials or fuels are regulated, and must have registration with the EPA.
These tanks are suitable for people wanting to maximize the space and/or value of their property. Underground storage tanks can be put beneath lawns and driveways, where they are not visible. Arguably, these types of tanks are safer as the chance of explosion is very little. However, the chance of leaks as well as that of generating pollution is increased in case of these tanks as they cannot be inspected often.
Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks:
Industrial chemical storage tanks are employed for storing fertilizers, propane, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products (gasoline, diesel), crude oil, and other chemicals. Industrial chemical storage tanks are available in various shapes and sizes. These storage tanks are used for mixing, processing, static storage, and transport of finished chemical products as well as raw materials.
Types of Industrial Chemical Storage Tanks
There are three chief types of industrial chemical storage tanks available –
Stainless steel tanks
Fiberglass (FRP) tanks
Stainless steel storage tanks are effective and durable; however, they are not suitable for many acids as well as are the most expensive option.
Fiberglass tanks are suitable for some applications. However, they have seams that may leak, need increased maintenance, more prone to human error as they are handcrafted, and are susceptible to certain chemicals such as hydrofluorosilicic acid – a chemical which etches glass (FRP’s structural component).
Polyethylene storage tanks come in cross-linked as well as linear polyethylene, and make the most versatile industrial storage tanks in the market.
Industrial Oil Storage Tanks:
Oil storage tanks are reservoirs or containers that hold oil temporarily during the different phases of processing into oil products of various types, or before it’s consumed or used. The materials and structure of industrial oil storage tanks are based on their application as well as the safety, environmental, and legal requirements of other kinds in the storage area.
Oil storage tanks in different sizes, shapes, materials, and types are employed from crude oil’s initial production to the distribution and refining of different petroleum oil products.
Modern industrial oil storage tanks come in the materials – carbon steel, stainless steel, reinforced concrete, and plastic. They are also carved on rock salt deposits that are mostly impermeable, for underground storage of oil. Various oil storage tank types have been built over time.
Types of Industrial Oil Storage Tanks
Floating Roof Tank:
As the name suggests, the floating roof tank consists of a floating roof which falls or rises according to the level of oil in the tank. To prevent the build-up of vapor inside the tank, the floating roof in this type of tanks has been incorporated as a safety feature.
Fixed Roof Tank:
In the fixed roof tank, the oil stored is not exposed. This tank type is employed for holding oil products in lower volumes than in case of tanks having floating roofs.
Bunded tanks are enclosed by one more tank or have a containment dike surrounding the tank. The containment dike or outer tank acts as a catch system for preventing leakages, oil spills, or other types of oil contamination from being spread to the surroundings.
Single Skin & Double Skin Tanks:
Single skin tank has one layer and double skin tank has two layers of plastic or steel. Double skin tanks are also known as twin-walled tanks.
Open Top Tank:
This type of industrial oil storage tank was used earlier. Its use is limited now due to evaporation losses as well as the risk of oil catching fire.
Industrial Hot Water Storage Tanks:
Industrial hot water storage tanks are ASME certified built to be used in industrial applications in which a constant hot water supply is required. During low demand periods, water is heated and stored inside the water storage tank, which will be available to be used in times of high hot water demand. This enables efficient energy use while offering hot eater whenever required.
Water makes a good medium of heat storage due to its high specific heat capacity. Water can store greater heat per unit weight in comparison with other substances. Moreover, water is low cost and non-toxic.
An industrial hot water storage tank that’s insulated efficiently has the ability to retain the stored heat for many days, thus reducing the fuel costs. These storage tanks in industries may consist of an inbuilt oil or gas burner system, and electric immersion heaters. Hot water tanks of certain types utilize external heat exchanger, like a central heating system. Alternatively, these tanks types may use heated water from a different energy source.
Insulation of Hot Water Storage Tanks:
Hot water storage tanks typically have heat insulation for lowering energy consumption, quickening the heating process as well as maintaining desired operating temperature. Standby heat loss is reduced by thicker thermal insulation. Water heaters come in varied insulation ratings; however, extra layers of insulation can be added outside the water heater for reducing heat loss. In case of extreme conditions, a water heater may be fully enclosed within an insulated space that’s specially constructed.
Fiberglass makes the most common type of insulation for water heaters. It’s fixed in place using straps or tape or with the water heater’s outer jacket. In cases where burner is used, the combustion gas outflow or air flow should not be blocked by insulation.
Most of the modern water heaters comprise insulation of applied polyurethane foam (PUF). In cases where it’s crucial to access the inner tank (where particularly aggressive oxygen levels or minerals are present in local water supply), PUF insulation is used in an encapsulated form. This allows the insulation layer to be removed to conduct regular integrity checks as well as repairs to the tank (if needed).
Industrial Water and Liquid Storage Tanks:
Water and liquid storage tanks are used to store a variety of liquids like kerosene, jet A, diesel, gasoline, waste oil, and for underground burial and pressurized applications. Liquid storage tanks come in different types, each type having its own specific applications.
Types of Water and Liquid Storage Tanks
Onion tanks are a great option to store water quickly during emergency events. These tanks are self-rising having fittings that are easy to access. Moreover, these tanks can be moved as well as set up within minutes.
Pillow (Bladder) Tanks:
Collapsible tanks – referred to as blivet, bladder, or pillow tanks also – are an effective re-usable temporary storage solution.
Poly tanks have domestic uses too. They are used for various applications including rainwater collection and drinking water storage. Poly tanks are available in different types that include wastewater tanks, mobile tanks, above ground tanks, and more.
Fiberglass liquid storage tanks are durable as well as they don’t corrode or rust easily. These tanks have a high level of temperature resistance. They come with different coatings so as to offer optimum performance with various liquid storage needs.
Welded Steel Tanks:
Welded steel tanks make a reliable solution for storage over long term. They come in various shapes and sizes to fit different types of applications.
Corrugated Steel Tanks:
Corrugated steel liquid storage tanks are versatile, durable, economical, and have a good longevity. They are made using galvanized corrugated steel. These tanks are available in various sizes as well as can be customized for meeting specific project needs. Corrugated steel tanks are used for rainwater collection, industrial process water, or fire suppression.
Industrial Plastic Storage Tanks:
Water storage is important for domestic, residential, industrial, and commercial purposes. Plastic water storage tanks are one among the best ways for water storage conventionally. Plastic tanks are light-weight, highly durable, and occupy less area compared to cement and concrete tanks. Moreover, plastic tanks have greater flexibility compared to conventional storage tanks. Such advantages of plastic water tanks have made them a popular option.
Materials Used to Make Plastic Water Storage Tanks:
Plastic water tanks are made with different materials like linear low-density polyethylene, fiber glass materials or polypropylene.
Applications of Plastic Water Storage Tanks:
Plastic water storage tanks are seeing increased applications in food processing, wastewater containers, chemical manufacturing, suppression valves, and agriculture and irrigation.
Plastic tanks are built on the basis of the liquid type to be stored. The storage capacity of these tanks lay between 1.5 and 1.9 specific gravity. Plastic used in a storage tank usually allows the liquid level to be visible easily.
Plastic storage tanks are employed widely to store liquids that include brine, waste vegetable oil, soaps, cleaning agents, industrial chemicals, agriculture and farm chemicals, diesel exhaust fluid (DEF), liquid fertilizers, potable water, and non-potable water.
Classification of Plastic Water Storage Tanks:
Plastic water storage tanks can be classified into various types based on polymer type, plastic type, size, shape, and application.
On the basis of polymer type, plastic tanks can be classified into – polyethylene, fiberglass, and others.
Based on plastic type, plastic tanks can be spilt into – fresh and recycled.
According to shape, plastic water storage tanks can be split into – rectangular, cylindrical, and others.
Based on size, these tanks can be classified into – large (greater than 5000 liters), medium (from 1000 liters to 5000 liters), and small (less than 1000 liters).
Based on application, these storage tanks can be split into – industrial, municipal, residential, and commercial.
Cylindrical water tanks of medium size are usually made with recycled polymers that are polyethylene based.
Industrial Gas Storage Tanks:
Most materials which are in gaseous state at ambient pressure and temperature are supplied in the form of compressed gas. The gas is compressed into pressure vessels for storage (like tube trailers, gas cylinders, or gas canisters) using a gas compressor through piping systems. Gas cylinders are most commonly used for gas storage, with large numbers being produced at “cylinder fill” facilities.
However, all of the industrial gases are not supplied in gaseous phase. Some gases are vapors, liquification for which can be done under pressure alone at ambient temperature, so these gases can be supplied in the form of a liquid too in a suitable container. These gases are useful in the form of ambient refrigerants owing to this phase change. The well-known industrial gases having this property are – sulfur dioxide, butane, propane, and ammonia.
Delivery of Gas?:
The important industrial gases are bulk produced and delivered by pipeline to customers. However, they can be packaged and then transported too.
Most of the gases are sold inside gas cylinders and a few gases are sold in the form of liquid inside suitable containers or in the form of bulk liquid that’s delivered by truck. Originally, the industry supplied gases within cylinders to prevent any necessity for generation of gas locally. However, for large customers like oil refineries or steelworks, a large-sized gas production plant can be built nearby (known as “on-site” facility) for avoiding the use of cylinders in large numbers manifolded together.
Types of Industrial Gas Storage Tanks:
There are different types of storage tanks in industries available. The type of industrial gas storage tank required by a plant depends on several factors including the holding capacity, measurement, and shape of the container.
The most common types of industrial tanks are as follows:
Internal Floating Roof:
Internal floating roof storage tank, popularly known as IFR, is employed for liquids having lower melting points like Gasoline and Ethanol. These tanks have a cone shape with a floating roof within, hence its name is floating roof tank. The roof suspended within the storage tank moves along the level of the fluid, i.e., with the increase of the liquid, the roof moves up and with the lowering of the liquid, the roof goes down. If the tank has no liquid, the roof of the tank is held by the legs on which it is placed.
Bullet tanks are sphere and flat-shaped industrial storage tanks used mostly in large plants. These types of tanks are usually preferred over the other types to store liquefied gases like Butane and Ammonia for which the melting point is very low.
Its name derived from the tank’s long cylindrical form, the tank stores these liquids at a temperature below -148 degrees Fahrenheit. These types of tanks mostly have the ability to hold huge amounts of gases that range from 5,000 to 30,000 gallons. Additionally, they can be installed horizontally as well as vertically. A unique characteristic of bullet tanks is that they have the ability to hold fuel as well as other additives required for the operation of the plant.
LNG Storage Tank:
LNG storage tank or liquefied natural gas storage tank is specially used to store Liquefied Natural Gas. These types of storage tanks in industries are available in LNG carriers, in ground, or above ground. LNG storage tanks have the special characteristic of being able to hold LNG at the extremely low temperature -162 °C.
These tanks consist of double containers – the inner container holds LNG whereas the outer one holds insulation materials. The full containment storage tank makes the most common type of tank. Roughly, the diameter of such a tank is 75 m and the height is 55 m (180 ft.).
If the LNG vapors aren’t released in such tanks, the temperature and pressure inside the tank would keep on rising. Being a cryogen, Liquefied Natural Gas is stored in its liquid form at extremely low temperatures. The temperature inside these tanks would stay constant in case the pressure is maintained as constant by releasing the boil off gas from the tank. Such phenomenon is referred to as auto-refrigeration.