Foundations are made of cement concrete. Foundation can be any of the Following two categories: Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) ire cement Mortar. Foundations can be used to carry simple axial compressive stress. Most of the foundations in industries are single footing type. Raft foundations are used where required.
Following are the components in a foundation:
Foundation bolts, nuts, lock nuts, washers, base plates, shear keys, foundation anchors and foundation concrete. In a general case, a foundation footing has to carry the following loads: Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My and Mz. The stress distribution In the foundation concrete is complicated. The foundation design requires Soil studies. Foundations are designed to carry the design load, without sinking. The following types of foundations are used: single footing, raft foundation and pile foundation. Foundation subjected to uplift due to wind load or earth-quake load are to be anchored properly. The concert mix used for foundation is usually Mix M20
The following types of foundation materials are available in the market:
Cold Twisted Deformed rods (CTD)
Thermo-Mechanically Treated rods (TMT)
Both of these type of rods have serrations on their surface. This enable the reinforcing rods to carry 30 % more shear load from the concrete. This aspect gives an economical foundation design.