steel element either cast into concrete or post-installed into a hardened concrete member and used to transmit applied loads to the concrete.
Cast-in anchors include headed bolts, hooked bolts (J- or L-bolt), and headed studs. Post-installed anchors include expansion anchors, undercut anchors, and adhesive anchors; steel elements for adhesive anchors include threaded rods, deformed reinforcing bars, or internally threaded steel sleeves with external deformations. a number of similar anchors having approximately equal effective embedment depths with spacing s between adjacent anchors such that the projected areas overlap.
For all potential failure modes only those anchors susceptible to a particular failure mode should be considered when evaluating the strength associated with that failure mode.