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Questions on Boiler
What are the fuels used in boilers?
Coal, oil and fuel gas.
What are the types of boilers used?
Power boilers, industrial boilers.
What are the Balance of plant (BOP) in a power station?
Coal handling, ash handling, auxiliary piping, cooling water plant, Chemical treatment plantlet.
What is a buckstay?
Buckstay is a product used to avoid bucking of the slim water walls and steam cooled walls.
What is a de-super heater?
De-super heater reduces the temperature of the super-heated steam.
What is a de-aerator?
De-aerator is a product used to remove oxygen and other gases from the water.
What is a burner?
Burner is used to burn solid or liquid or gaseous fuels.
What is a water wall?
Water wall is made of series of tubes connected with each other. Water flows inside the tubes.
What is a steam cooled wall?
Steam cooled wall is made of tubes connected with each other. Steam flows inside these tubes.
What are the types of air-heaters?
Air-heaters can be rotary type or stationery type.
Why ash collection devices are used?
Ash collection devices are used to reduce pollution.
What are the types of ash collection devices?
Mechanical precipitation and Electro-static precipitation are the two types used.
What are soot blowers?
Soot blowers are used to clean the heat transfer surfaces of boiler.
What are the mediums used for soot blowing?
Air blowing or steam blowing are the two methods used.
What are the types of soot blowers?
Wall blowers and long retractable blowers are used.
What are the type of heat transfer surfaces used?
Plain surfaces and finned surfaces are for heat transfer.
What is the function of the economizer?
Economizer economizes the power plant operation.
What are the functions of steam drum?
(a) steam separation, (b) steam-water circulation and (c) purifying steam.
What is the function of super-heater?
Super-heater is used to super heat the steam and get higher thermal Efficiency of the plant.
Why large boilers are top supported?
(a) avoid buckling of furnace walls, (b) allow thermal expansion and (c) reduce thermal loads.
Why steel structures (avoiding concrete) are used for boiler structures?
Steel structures are used are used for speeding - up the construction schedule and facilitate changes.
What is aviation light?
Aviation lights are used in tall buildings to warn aero-planes against Collision and accident.
What is lightning arrestor?
Lightning arrestors receive the electrical current during lightning and Save the structure.
What is wind load?
Movement of air is wind. The wind load for India is given in IS875 part 3.
What is seismic load?
Seismic load, also known as earth-quake load, is due to movement of Earth. (see IS1893).
What is the allowable deflection?
The allowable deflection was set as one inch per ten yards. As per IS800 - 1984, D = span / 325.
What is resonance?
When the natural frequency and the induced frequency matches Resonance takes place.
Why resonance should be avoided?
During resonance, high vibration and stress will occur. Hence, resonance Should be avoided.
What is the life of a power plant?
Life of the power plant is about 50 years. But, many components need Replacement and repair.
What is safety requirement for boiler, in India?
The Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 (with amendments).
What are the materials used for boiler pressure parts?
Carbon steel, low alloy steel, medium alloy steel and stainless steel.
What are the materials used for boiler structures?
Mild steel as per IS2062 is used. For fasteners, IS1367 is used.
What is the material used for boiler insulation?
Slag wool, mineral wool and glass wool are used.
What is the material used for boiler foundation?
Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) with a specification "M20" is used.
What are the types of bolted connections used for boiler structures?
Bearing type connection and Friction type connections are used. Bearing type is popularly used.
What is a shear key?
Shear key are flat plates welded at the bottom of the structure base plates to transfer shear forces.
What are the types of chimneys?
Rcc chimney and steel chimney are used.
What are the types of steel chimneys?
Self supporting type and guyed chimney are used.
Why conical chimneys are preferred?
Conical chimneys are economical.
What is the corrosion allowance used for steel chimney?
Corrosion allowance = 3.0 mm (typical).
Which boiler code is governing in India?
The Indian Boiler Regulations, 1950 (with amendments)is governing in India.
Who is the authorized inspector in India?
The Chief Inspector of Boiler (CIB) is the authorized inspector for the Respective states.
Which body is empowered to amend The Indian Boiler Regulation?
The Central Boiler Board (CBB) is authorized to amend the IBR.
Why steel is used for boiler pressure parts?
The cost to weight ratio is favorable for steel. Hence, steel is used.
What is the purpose of refractory?
Refractory is provided where the flue gas temperature is high (above 800 Degree C).
What is the purpose of refractory retainers?
Retainers are embed within the refractory and they retain the refractory to the surfaces.
What are the steps in design?
Design, engineering, process analysis, stress analysis, detailing, drafting, Documentation and document approval.
What are the aspects to be taken care-off in design?
Head-room, walk-way, access, approach, clash detection, clash resolution and interfacing.
What are the software's used in design office?
MS Windows, MS Office, STAAD. Pro, CAEPIPIE, CAESAR - II.
What are the hardware required in design office?
Computer with accessories, Un-interrupted power supply (UPS), Xerox machine, FAX.
What software are used for piping stress analysis?
CAEPIPE and CAESAR - II.
What are the plant design computer programs used?
CATIA, Plant Design System (PDS), Plant Design Management System (PDMS).
What are the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software available?
ANSYS, COSMOS, ABACUS and NASTRAN.
What is the head room required?
Head room required = 1.800 mm.
What is the walk- way width required?
Walk-way width required = 900 mm.
What is the load per unit area on the boiler floors?
Load per square meter = 500 kg.
What is the allowable deflection due to loads?
Allowable deflection = " Span / 325 ".
What is the allowable drift?
Allowable drift = " Height / 325 ".
Why stress concentration factor (SCF) is not considered in boiler design?
The boiler materials are ductile steel. The stress, after yielding, Re-distributes favorably.
What is virtual zero point?
Large top supported boilers expand cubically with respect to a virtual Zero point near the top.
What is floating anchor?
Floating anchors are anchors with thermal expansion movements.
What is buckstay channel?
Buckstay channel is used to support the furnace walls and helps in transfer of loads.
What is furnace guide?
Furnace guides fix the virtual zero point. This is used to transfer load From hot structure to cold structure. l am-water mixture.
List the drum internals
Turbo-separator or cyclone separator, pipes for vents, drains ad chemical dosing.
What is the purpose of a header?
Header collects or distributes steam or water or steam-water mixture.
State ideal gas law.
PV = m R T.
State zoreth law of thermodynamics.
If systems A and B are in equilibrium with system C, then systems A and B Are in equilibrium.
State the First law of thermodynamics.
In an isolated system, the energy is always conserved.
State the Second law of thermodynamics.
A system has to deliver heat with a sink while pumping heat from a lower Source to a higher source.
State First law of Newton
A body will be in its state of rest or steady motion along a straight line Unless acted upon by external force.
State Second law of Newton.
The rate of change of momentum is equal to force.
State Third law of Newton.
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
State Newtons universal law of gravitation.
All bodies attract each other. The force of attraction is inversely proportional to the square of distance of separation.
What are the types of pollution?
Solid pollution, liquid pollution, air pollution and noise pollution.
What is the causes of air pollution?
The main causes of air pollution are power plants and automobiles.
Why Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) is used?
RCC is labor intensive and economical in India.
What is pre-stressed concrete?
Pre-stressing with steel rods in the RCC is pre-stressed concrete.
What is the function of foundation bolts?
Foundation bolts holds-down the structure to earth.
What is Flue Gas De-sulfurisation (FGD)?
FGD is used to remove sulfur and sulfur compounds from the flue gas.
Name a few structural elements (members).
Column, beam and bracing.
What is the design criteria for column?
Axial compressive load.
What is the design criteria for beam?
Beams are designed to withstand bending.
What is the design criteria for bracing?
Axial tension or axial compression.
What is the function of base plate?
Base plate distributes forces from the columns and bracings to the foundation.
What are the types structural steel connections?
Bolted or welded or riveted or bonded connections.
What is the minimum thickness of structures to be used?
Where hand hole plates are used?
Hand hole plates are used in the boiler pressure parts to view and clean the inside surfaces.
Where man-hole ways are used?
Man-hole ways are used to access the boiler inner parts.
What is the function of boiler drum level gages?
Level gages are used for finding the water level inside the boiler drums.
What are thermo-couples?
Thermo-couples are used to measure the temperature of components.
What is flow nozzle?
Flow nozzle is used to find-out the quantity of flow measurement.
What is an orifice?
Orifice is a sharp opening in a plate to facilitate flow measurement.
What is a venture?
Venturi is used measure the flow in a pipe.
What is a valve?
Valves are used control flow in pipes.
What is DAS?
Data Acquisition System (DAS) is used record readings.
What is VLH?
Variable Load Hangers (CLH) are used for support, permiting limited Support load variation.
What is CLH?
Constant Load Hangers(CLH) are used for support,permitting small load variations.
Why water quality is control of in boilers?
Water quality is controlled to avoid corrosion of boiler parts.
Why paints are required?
Paints are required to protect the surface of boiler.
Why rockers are used for boiler hanger supports?
Rockers reduce the induced bending load. This leads to economic design.
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