8. Deformations
Deformations can be linear deformation or angular deformation. Linear deformation is known as deflection. The deformation can be in the horizontal plane or in the vertical plane. There limits on the deformation suggested by different codes and standard. These are not mandatory. These are only empirical in nature. The allowable deviation to vertical plane is 3.0 mm per meter. The allowable deviation to horizontal plane is 3.0 mm per meter. The allowable angular deformation is 0.5 Degree. The induced deformation are computed using computer software. These are reviewed for deformation. These deformations are not applicable to thermal expansion induced movements.

The following loads induce deformations: primary loads, secondary loads and occasional loads. Suitable load combinations are considered. The following types of restraints are used: limit stops, hydraulic snubbers, slings, anchors and two way restraints. The rigid supports for the piping also work as deformation limits.
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