3_Loads
     
      The loads on the piping can be classified into the following three categories:
  
               .  Primary Loads: internal pressure, external pressure, self weight of contents, insulation weight, refractory weight, weight of inner lining. weight of outer lining, equipment loads,                               valves, fittings, gages, instruments and supports.
               .   Secondary Loads: thermal load, thermal transients, anchor displacements, relative settlement if foundations and constrains for movements.
               .   Occasional Loads: wind load, seismic load (earth-quake load), snow load , ice load, flood load, fire load, vehicle passing load (under ground piping), tsunami loads, and cyclone load.

     

     
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