Piping industry uses many standard components. They are: long radius elbow, short radius elbow, equal TEE, unequal TEE; branch, concentric reducer, eccentric reducer, Y-Pieces, flange, etc. Standard pipes are also used. Pipes are classified into Schedule pipes. The dimensions of Schedule pipes is given in the attachment. The fittings of the piping are rated based on Classes. A typical pressure temperature rating is given in the attachment. The standard components are to be arranged and supported. Piping and Instrument Diagram (P & ID) is prepared considering the operation of the plant. After a trial layout, a trial stress analysis is done using a computer. Based on the results of the trial stress analysis, the design is updated and finalized.
Standard components are available across the shelf. This improves the project execution time. As the materials, shape, size and details are similar, the design activity is done fast. This helps in completing the contract execution, early.