When a tension member is subjected to axial tensile force, then the distribution of stress over the cross-section is uniform. The complete net area of a member is effectively used at the maximum permissible uniform stress.
Yielding will occur first in the net section. However, the deformations induced by yielding will be localized around the net section. These localized deformations will not cause excessive deformations in the complete tension member. Hence, yielding at the net section will not be a failure limit state
*A tension member can fail by reaching one of two limit states:
(1) excessive deformation; or (2) fracture
• Excessive deformation can occur due to the yielding of the gross section along the length of the member
• Fracture of the net section can occur if the stress at the net section reaches the ultimate stress Fu.
• The objective of design is to prevent these failure before reaching the ultimate loads on the
• This is also the load and resistance factor design approach recommended by AISC for
designing steel structures.