Piping are of many types. The piping may be land based or sea based. In the present book, land based piping are considered. Strength of a component depends on the following variables: material, metal temperature, design life, load orientations and types of loads. Computer play a major role in doing strength calculation for piping. Strength calculations can be done by experienced and qualified persons. Design calculations are part of the design activities. The following are the design activities: (a) design, (b) engineering,(c) stress analysis, (d) process analysis, (e) detailing, (f) drafting, (g) documentation, (h) document control and (i) document approval. In a design office the following sequence of work is carried-out: (i) layout, (ii) arrangement of parts, (iii) floor plans, (iv) isometrics, (v) design of parts and (vi) review and carry-out changes, where required.
     After the advent of computers, the activities in the design office has undergone a sea change. In any project, the following three aspects are of prime
Importance: speed of execution, right price and acceptable quality. The designer should be diligent to strike a balance between the above said three requirements. Design is an iterative process. Designers rarely visit job sites. Designers’ knowledge is bookish, most the time. Computers are used to reduce the cycle time for design. The output of the design office is drawings and related documents. 

     The following design assumptions are made during design: (1) linear material behavior, (2) elastic material, (3) homogeneous material, (4) isotropic material behavior, (5) steady-state loading, (6) static component. The following additional requirements are to be satisfied: (a) head room, (b) walk way (a person with shoe, helmet and a tool box in one hand should be able to walk, erect), (c) interference (hard clash and soft clash) and (d) interference resolution, (e) interfaces taken care-off, (f) required access provided to understand the principles of boiler design: (i) Thermodynamics,(ii) Heat Transfer, (iii) Fluid Mechanics (iv) Solid Mechanics, (v) Engineering Mechanics, (vi) Strength of Materials, (vii) Materials Science and (viii) Stress Analysis. The designer should go beyond the codes and standards to assure “Fail Safe Design”. The designer is the mother of the product. The designer should know about the product from “Cradle to Grave”. The designer should know the (1) product, (2) process, (3) problem, (4) places, (5) persons and (6) prices. Knowledge of these six aspects will help in taking timely decisions.

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