16. Lateral Restraints
1. Introduction
      This write-up gives particulars of the lateral restraints and the loads resisted.
2. Loads
      The following loads are considered: thermal movement induced loads, wind load, seismic load (earth-quake load), vibration of equipment.
3. Load Combination
      The following load combinations are considered:
primary load + secondary load
primary load + occasional load
The following load combination is not considered:
secondary load + occasional load
primary load + secondary load + occasional load
4. Lateral Restraints
      Lateral restraints retain the piping layout against the forces of nature, such as wind load and seismic load (earth-quake load). Hydraulic snubbers or mechanical snubbers can be used for this purpose. However, limit stops are used commonly. The loads, locations and direction of loads are obtained from a stress analysis of piping. Lateral restraints are provided to serve the following puposes:
guide for piping
resist horizontal loads
resist horizontal movements
reduce vibration.
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